The photosphere is an Electron dense layer of Bright, bubbling granules of plasma which emerge when the sun’s magnetic
field breaks through the surface. Sunspots appear to move across the sun’s disk. Observing this motion is what lead Astronomers many years ago
to discover that the polar regions take more than 30 days to make a complete rotation.
The atmosphere of the sun has several layers. Mainly the photosphere, the Chromosphere and the Corona. It’s in these outer
layers that the sun’s energy is detected as sunlight.
The lowest layer of the sun’s atmosphere is the photosphere. It is Approximately 300 miles (500 kilometers) thick. This layer is where the sun’s
energy is released as light. Because of the distance from the sun to Earth, light reaches our planet in about eight minutes.
The Photosphere is also where the solar flares come from. The fire that extends hundreds of thousands of miles above the sun’s surface. Solar flares produce bursts
of X-rays, ultraviolet radiation, electromagnetic radiation and radio waves.The Sun’s Photosphere has a temperature between 4,500 and 6,000 K (4,230 and 5,730 °C)
(with an effective temperature of 5,777 K (5,504 °C)) and a density of about 2×10−4 kg/m3; other stars may have hotter or cooler photospheres.
The Chromosphere has a reddish glow as super-heated hydrogen burns out into space. Light from the chromosphere is usually too weak to be seen because the Photosphere is just
too bright most of the time..
The third layer of the sun’s atmosphere is the Corona. It looks like plumes of ionized gas
that flow outward into space. Temperatures in the sun’s corona can get as high as 3.5 million degrees F (2 million degrees C). When the gases cool, they become the solar winds. At the core of the sun, gravitational attraction produces immense pressure and temperature, which can reach more than 27 million degrees Fahrenheit (15 million degrees Celsius).
Hydrogen atoms get compressed and fuse together, creating helium. This process is called nuclear fusion.